AKO Wildlife Defence

Electric fences – a powerful argument Wild freedom – but only up to a point!

General information The Electric Fence Large game Bears Red Deer Fallow Deer Mouflons Wild Boar Small game Roe Deer Rabbits Predators Wolves Foxes | Badgers European Otters Rodents Beavers 4-7 8-27 28-35 36-47 48-51 2 Contents

In this guide, we present a detailed excerpt in words and pictures from our range of wild animal deterrent fence products, customised to the different wild animal types and their specific characteristics: proven practical solutions that ensure a successful and long-term protection function. We also provide other solutions for your individual requirements. Your AKO team Questions hotline: +49 80 86 933 577 Dear Customer, From corn fields ruined by wild boar, fish ponds plundered by otters, or sheep taken by wolves – the topic of wild animal deterrent is not just a perennial issue, but also has additional, new, problematic facets. The damages can quickly amount to thousands of euros. Deterrents usually bring only time-limited success. Electric fences, in contrast, have been proven to provide safe, longterm protection. Since 2000, AKO-Agrartechnik, a company specialising in the production of electric fences, has been a part of the Albert Kerbl GmbH family business, which boasts a wealth of experience in animal husbandry and is very well acquainted with the needs of farmers and animal lovers. It’s a successful combination with a high level of expertise. 3 Foreword

Thanks to its mobility and efficacy, a pasture fence that conducts electricity in its wires provides a valuable service when setting up fencing and primarily as a protective measure. However, it is by no means intended as a permanent device. These advantages of an electric fence are particularly appreciated within agricultural animal husbandry and when keeping wild animals at bay. The tensioned wires along provide both a mechanical and visual barrier. The best deterrent effect is achieve, however, when several additional wires conduct electricity. Powerful fence devices must be optimally earthed in order to provide full efficacy. Depending on the soil composition, three ground rods are driven into the ground at least a metre deep and at intervals of two to three metres ideally; these will later be connected to one another. If an animal touches the fence, it receives a short electric shock. This is harmless, but so unpleasant that the animal retreats and remembers the obstacle. AKO-Agrartechnik GmbH & Co. KG is one of the leading manufacturers of fencing systems in Europe. 70 years of development expertise with our own teams speak for themselves. All our fence devices are Made in Germany in our company premises in Wangen im Allgäu. We value close contacts and active feedback from the users of our fences. The result is our 4 An exemplary electric fence installed by AKO-Agrartechnik.

5 The Electric Fence extensive range of fencing systems for all kinds of applications. AKO focuses on wild animal deterrence in particular. The core issue here is definitely the use of electric fences to prevent wildlife damaging agricultural land. The damage to crops caused by wild boar and also red deer, fallow deer and mouflons feeding and trampling is likely to amount to several million euros in Germany alone. Then there is also the sometimes massive rooting damage in Greenland, for which wild boars are solely responsible. The damage situation is equally problematic in wine-growing regions: mainly roe deer and wild boars eating buds and grapes is a huge nuisance here. An exact estimate of all actual damage is not possible due to excessively high error rates. For years now, electric fences have been used to protect against foxes and badgers. With the increase and spread of the number of wolves, animal owners are relying on electric fences for effective herd protection. Electric fences can also effectively prevent damage caused by beavers to crops or by otters entering fish farms. The following pages provide valuable advice on setting up an electric fence adapted for each kind of wild animal respectively. AKO Starter Kit Mobil Power AN 5500 plus AKO Plastic Post Premium. Practical fence connection cables.

The well-known AKO fencing systems and newly developed AKO wild animal deterrent netting are very effective in the long-term defence against the aforementioned wild animals. However, each species of animal has its own characteristics that must be observed when setting up an electric fence. AKO, your reliable partner, offers a wide range of product components so that you can choose exactly the right parts to put together your ideal wild animal deterrent fence. 6 A wheat field protected by an electric fence – no damage! The same wheat field as above, unprotected the previous year.

A fencing system includes: • A powerful electric fence device that generated regular electric pulses. • Two 12 V batteries for replacement, possibly supplemented by a solar module to extend the run time. • A battery charger. • A 230 V power pack in the vicinity of the building with a power supply is ideal. • Three special earthing rods with ground connection cable. • High-quality conductor material. Usually several wires that conduct the current. Preferably a mix of wires and tapes. • Plastic posts through whose guides the wires are pulled. • Fixed or movable wooden posts. • Ring and gate handle insulators • Fast wire connector • Fence connector cable • Gate handle kit • Reels • Blue signal tape • Warning signs • Fence voltage tester • Mechanical theft set (recommended) The variety of products and their high quality alone do not lead to success. Therefore, the five following aspects must be considered for an installed electric fence: 1. Create the best possible earthing. 2. Daily fence checks – not just with a voltage tester, also the entire fence system. 3. Pay attention to plants and branches lying over the wires and also wires sagging to the ground. They significantly reduce performance. 4. For the same reason, the vegetation underneath the wires or netting must also be kept as short as possible. 5. The charging power of the battery should be checked at regular intervals.Replace it immediately if weakened. 7 Visit our website With our practical fence calculator, you can configure your individual fence system. www.fenceconfigurator.com The Electric Fence Useful accessories: AKO gate handle insulator and fast wire connector, multimeter and simple voltage tester.

As bears love honey, the border triangle of Slovenia, Italy and Austria often see damage done to beehives. 8 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  AKO Mobil Power AN5500 digital (372560)  Solar Module 45 W incl. Charge Controller (375401)  Metal Battery Case with Roof for AN-12 V Devices (44656)  AKO Premium AGM Battery 88 AH (441203)  Premium WildHog Wire, blue (449312) or TopLine Plus Fencing Tape white-petrol (449598)  Octo Wood Corner / Gate Post, 140 x 2000 mm (441827)  Easy Drill Ring Insulator EDX, cont. Support, 75 pcs. Bucket (443269/753E)

Eurasian brown bears 9 Large game A bear has done a number on these beehives. Barbed wire is not enough. An electric fence to deter brown bears (Ursus arctos) ? The question may surprise some people, however beekeepers have been successfully protecting their beehives against destruction by bears in the Austrian state of Carinthia or in neighbouring Slovenia for years. It's a different story in Romania, where the bear population is estimated at more than 8,000 and contains many experienced old bears against whom such defensive measures are of little use. In the spring of 2017, wildlife biologists assumed that there were around eight “wandering” bears that appeared repeatedly in Carinthia. There are apparently a total of 15 bears in the border triangle of Slovenia, Italy and Austria. They are mostly younger male bears that come from Slovenia or Trentino in northern Italy and wander about. In the Slavic language, the word for bear is “Medwed” – a honey eater, which makes sense. Bears mainly only go for beehives in cool, wet weather. These pests are very well aware about the bees’ defences and do not their stings at all. Damage therefore usually occurs in the spring and autumn, only rarely in summer and, if it does, usually on a very cool morning or if the bears are extremely hungry. In Carinthia, damage proven to have been caused by bears – including damage to beehives – is compensated by a state hunter's insurance. Carinthian wildlife biologist Bernhard Gutleb and his team have made various observations regarding the use of an electric fence to ward off bears. Alongside creating a strong pulse in the electric fence, success also depends on whether a bear already knows the respective beehive (and therefore the “pay off” awaiting within). Its motivation to go up against the electric fence seems to depend heavily on this. This results in the following advice: if you hear reports of a bear in the neighbourhood, you can quickly install a quasi-provisional electric fence using AKO plastic posts (at intervals of 5 to 8 m) with three AKO wires affixed to it at heights of around 20 cm, 50 cm and 70 to 80 cm (corresponding to the posts). On slopes, a fourth current-carrying wire at a height of around 120 cm is recommended. In general, the following applies: keep vegetation short, tension the wires tightly – the AKO fence device must be powerful. A solar

VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 2,5-5 m 5 1 1 2 2 4 6 7 3 8 Bear defence fence 10 device for charging batteries is recommended in exposed areas. If a bear is not already familiar with the beehive protected in this way, it will only rarely break through the fence, according to bear expert Gutleb. The situation is different if the bears have gained experience and have already visited the beehives more often. The stocks must then be secured in a stable manner for the long term. This kind of permanent solution is mainly recommended for more extensive commercial beehive complexes and for queen breeding. There is even support available for installing an electric fence from the nature conservation agency in the state of Carinthia for this and other special cases. A bear can't be stopped mechanically anyway. This is why you need not overdo the strength and density of the posts. Bears hate the electric shock, but if they really want to get through the fence, even stable posts anchored in the ground every 50 cm won’t hold them back.

20 cm 50 cm 80 cm 120 cm 5 Signal light 6 Warning sign 7 Insulators 8 E-Line Gate System Solar battery 1 Premium WildHog Polywire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape 3 “25 years working as a bear advocate has shown me mainly the ingenuity of our most intelligent native wildlife, paired with their proverbial power. If a bear appears in the area, even a temporary electric fence is already a very good defence. If a bear really want to get through an electric fence, it will. But taking the fun out of it is often the measure with the best cost-benefit ratio. Bears love comfort and getting an electric shock on their wet, highly sensitive noses is something they really hate.” MAG. BERNHARD GUTLEB – Bear Officer of the Carinthian State Government 11 Large game 4 Fence connection cable with alligator clips Protection from inexperience bears, at least.

OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Savanne 3000 Starter Kit (441018)  TopLine Plus blue 10 mm (449569)  TopLine Plus Wire 400 m (4491559)  Octo Wood Post 225 cm (441826)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable triple (441601/011)  Ring Insulator EDX (443279/1003E)  Klippiso Maxi Tape (441390/803)  Warning Sign (446513) Increased damage occurs especially when red deer move into crops in herds. 12

Red Deer Red deer prefer semi-open spaces in line with their native behaviour. Extensive loss of habitat has, however, pushed them back into the forests in many places. As more than 50 per cent of space is used for agriculture in Germany, for example, open fields provide essential habitat for red deer in the intensively used cultured landscape. They go there to browse and crops cover a large proportion of their food requirements. Red deer live in distinctive social structures. They often form large herds, especially in their main living areas with suitable habitats and in places where wolves now occur more frequently. Whether its a family group or large herd – damage to crops caused by red deer is very annoying for landowners and hunting practitioners. Damage like this can be successfully reduced and often even completely avoided using a properly installed electric fence. We recommend using a powerful 12 V AKO fence device that guarantees a fence voltage of around 4000 to 5000 volts. The pulse energy must be over 1 Joule up to about 5 Joules. Excellent grounding is a basic prerequisite for the effectiveness of any electric fence. A red deer defence fence should measure 1.6 to 1.8 m in height. A wooden post should be sunk at the corners of the field and, depending on the fence length, halfway along each side of the field, to which insulators are screwed. Plastic posts with integrated wire eyelets are installed in between (depending on the terrain) at intervals of 7 to 8 metres depending on the height of the fence. 13 Large game Red deer enjoying the triticale. Massive deer damage to corn. An electric fence with rags is effective.

Red deer defence fence 14 Similar to livestock farming, one or two wires are usually enough to deter red deer. The wires are tensioned on the wooden posts, whereas they only need to be inserted into the eyelets of the plastic posts. Important: the electric fence or wire must be easily recognisable as an obstacle for the wild animals. It is best to use a blue TopLine Plus fence tape. With two tensioned wires, the upper should be the blue fence tape, whereas TopLine Plus polywire is ideal for the lower one. Our tip: where there is a lot of wildlife, hang blue signal tapes made of plastic or reflective and noisy aluminium foil strips, or even just rags, on the fence tape or wire at regular intervals. This will make the fence even more visible to the deer. And it's worth the effort! Please note: If there are also wild boars present alongside the red deer in the area, we advise installing more wires at 20 to 25 cm above the ground, then 50 cm and 160 to 180 cm at the top. Please read our recommendations on wild boar defence fences for more information. VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN TOR mind. 5 m 7-8 m 6 5 4 7 8 Gate mi . 5 m

“I have the most success in deterring red deer and fallow deer when I add a classic rag fence to the electric fence. This means that sometimes, the wire at 180 cm can be left off. In my experience, it takes several months until the red deer get used to the rag fence. If you are not using a rag fence, the top wire should at least be easily visible.” AREA HUNT MASTER HENRIK WILLMANN – professional hunter and forester in a private forestry estate 15 Large game They prefer to browse on oats, wheat and rye. 4 Aluminium strips or rags 5 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 6 Signal light Warning sign 7 8 Insulators 1 White-blue TopLine Plus fence wire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape 3 Blue signal tape 2 3 20 cm 40 cm 160 cm 180 cm 1 1

The diurnal fallow deer loves to stand in grain fields. 16 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Starter Kit Mobil Power AN 5500 (441016)  TopLine Plus blue 10 mm (449569)  TopLine Plus Wire 400 m (4491559)  Octo Wood Post 225 cm (441826)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable triple (441601/011)  Ring Insulator EDX (443279/1003E)  Klippiso Maxi Tape (441390/803)  Warning Sign (446513)

Fallow Deer 17 Without fence protection, damage is to be expected. Large game Potato fields must be protected in case of fallow deer. The tubers are knocked free. The ideal habitat for fallow deer is a varied landscape structure with fields, meadows plus small and large forest areas. This can be observed due to its daytime activity in the fields. Increasing disturbances have, however, also turned it into a nocturnal animal. One often sees fallow deer in larger herds which – with the exception of the rutting season – is separated by sex. Agricultural land with an attractive range of grazing is intensively used for grazing by the often large herds. They especially love lactic ripe wheat and oats, potatoes or young maize plants. This results in considerable damage due to feeding and trampling. Electric fences have proven to be effective in deterring deer, but they do have to be more elaborate for fallow deer as opposed to for other cloven-hoofed animals. There’s no way past the use of a powerful 12 V AKO fence device with a fence voltage of around 4000 to 5000 volts and an impulse energy of 1 to 5 Joules. Excellent grounding is a basic prerequisite for the effectiveness of any electric fence. The defence fence must be at least 1.60 m in height. A wooden post should be sunk at the corners of the field and, depending on the fence length, halfway along each side of the field, to which insulators are screwed. Plastic posts with integrated wire eyelets are installed in between (depending on the terrain) at intervals of 7 to 8 metres depending on the height of the fence. The wires are tensioned on the wooden posts, whereas they only need to be inserted into the eyelets of the plastic posts. The following must be observed: The distance from wire to wire must be close, preferably 15 cm to a maximum of 20 cm. Otherwise fallow deer will jump between the wires. It has proven

VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 7-8 m TOR mind. 5 m 5 4 6 7 3 Fallow deer defence fence 18 Lactic ripeness sees increased numbers of fallow deer in grain fields. Gate in. 5 m

20 cm 40 cm 60 cm 80 cm 100 cm 120 cm 140 cm 160/180 cm 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 “The social, diurnal fallow deer likes to group together in large herds of stags or does. Because of this, major damage to crops can occur in a short time. Fallow deer like to slip through the wires, so keep the distance between wires short. This must be taken into account during installation. Experienced deer then quickly learn what effect electric fences have.” GAME MASTER JENS KRÜGER – professional hunter, forester, outfitter, author 19 Large game useful to use eight wires in ground intervals of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and finally 160 cm. Additional rags do not help much in deterring fallow deer. They quickly get used to them. Two pieces of advice: a blue plastic signal tape helps to make an electric fence visible as an obstacle. However, with fallow deer there is a risk – stags can get their antlers caught in the plastic tape and end up with it wound around them as they try to flee. Electric fence netting is also not without risk when it comes to fallow deer, as stags can also get their antlers caught in this. AKO therefore recommends using a WildNet to deter fallow deer. 4 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 5 Signal light 6 Warning sign 7 Insulators Aluminium strips or rags 3 1 White-blue TopLine Plus fence wire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape

Mouflons prefer forests as habitat, but crops are tempting. 20 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Savanne 3000 Starter Kit (441018)  TopLine Plus blue 10 mm (449569)  TopLine Plus Wire 400 m (4491559)  Octo Wood Post 225 cm (441826)  Plastic Post 156 cm (443493)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable triple (441601/011)  Ring Insulator EDX (443279/1003E)  Klippiso Maxi Tape (441390/803)  Warning Sign (446513)

Mouflon 21 Large game The rye suffers major damage due to the lack of fence protection. Large herds cause trampling damage. These wild sheep prefer large, continuous, light deciduous, mixed and pine forests as habitat. In areas with a smaller proportion of forests, mouflon can also switch to browsing in fields. They are actually fairly frugal and are content with sparse food. However, one can also see the “lawnmower effect” so familiar from domestic sheep with mouflons – especially when large herds cause massive browsing damage to grain and rapeseed fields, for example. They also cause damage by trampling and to stores. An electric fence with four wires, or preferably five wires when large numbers occur, has proven successful in preventing such damage. A powerful 12 V AKO fence device with a fence voltage of around 4000 to 5000 volts and an impulse energy of 1 to 5 Joules is used. Excellent grounding is a basic prerequisite for the- of any electric fence. As wild boar are also found in many areas, this should also be taken into account when setting up an electric fence to deter mouflons. The defence fence must be at 1.60 m to 1.80 m in height. A wooden post should be sunk at each corner of the field and, depending on the fence length, halfway along each side of the field, to which insulators are screwed. (Plastic) posts, preferably with integrated wire eyelets, are installed in between (depending on the terrain) at intervals of 7 m to 8 metres depending on the height of the fence. The wires are tensioned on the wood posts, whereas they only need to be inserted into the eyelets of the plastic posts. The distance between the wires and the ground should be 20, 40, 60, 100 and then 160 cm or 180 cm. The largest distance can be between the uppermost wire to the one beneath it. Rapeseed is heavily browsed, especially in winter.

VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 7-8 m 7 5 4 8 6 TOR mind. 5 m Mouflon defence fence 22 Important: mouflons must be able to see the electric fence as an obstacle. This is why you should tension a blue AKO TopLine Plus Fence Tape at both 40 and 120 cm height. A whiteblue AKO TopLine Plus polywire is then tensioned above and below this. Our tip: the fence becomes easier to see if there is a blue signal tape tensioned at 160 cm or 180 cm. This also causes movement noises in the wind. In areas exposed to wind, we recommend that you cut the signal tape into several pieces and secure one piece to the top of each post. It's worth the effort! Alternative: AKO EasyNet sheep nets are tried and tested from domestic sheep farming. AKO offers the blue WildNet with three conductive TriCOND rows for keeping wild animals at bay. The AKO WildNet has a length of 50 m and a height of 75 cm above ground. The netting elements can be easily connected together. Optimum mouflon deterrence means affixing at least two blue AKO TopLine Plus fencing tapes at Gate i . 5 m

20 cm 40 cm 60 cm 80 cm 100 cm 120 cm 140 cm 160 cm 180 cm 2 2 3 1 1 “Lactic ripe oats and wheat in particular, but also all other crops are very much at risk. Should there be a large herd, a huge amount of additional trampling damage and damage to stores can occur. Although mouflons are excellent jumpers, it only jumps even low fences if under significant pressure, which makes it easy to keep away from at-risk areas using an electric fence.” GAME MASTER MATTHIAS MEYER – professional hunter in a large private forestry and hunting administration, author 23 Large game 120 cm and 160 cm or 180 cm on appropriately tall additional posts and supplying them with power. 4 Aluminium strips or rags 5 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 6 Signal light Warning sign 7 8 Insulators 1 White-blue TopLine Plus fence wire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape 3 Blue signal tape

An electric fence has proven to be very effective against wild boar. 24 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Starter Kit Mobil Power AN 5500 (441016)  Signal Tape blue (27216)  Premium WildHog Wire (449312)  Octo Wood Post 225 cm (441826)  Plastic Post 108 cm blue (4418083)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable triple (441601/011)  Ring Insulator EDX (443279/1003E)  Klippiso Maxi Tape (441390/803)  Warning Sign (446513)

Wild Boar As soon as high-growing crops such as rapeseed, rye, maize or miscanthus (China reed) provide sufficient cover in the hunting grounds, wild boar will move in. The result: considerable damage caused by feeding and rooting. Damage like this can be avoided with a properly set up and maintained AKO electric fence. The power is supplied by a very powerful 12 V AKO electric fence device. For long fences with multiple wires and where heavy vegetation is to be expected, we recommend a pulse energy of more than 5 Joules. Please note: in order to effectively protect rapeseed crops, but especially maize fields, the electric fence must be set up and energised before the crops provide cover. Otherwise, you run the risk of fencing in sows already in it. A wild boar defence fence should be 50 to 60 cm high. A wooden post should be sunk at the corners of the field and, depending on the fence length, halfway along each side of the field, to which insulators are screwed. 90 cm long AKO plastic posts with integrated wire eyelets are installed in between (depending on the terrain) at intervals of 6 to 8 metres depending on the height of the fence. The wires are tensioned on the wooden posts, whereas they only need to be inserted into the eyelets of the plastic posts. Recommendation: where the risk of damage is high, tension three wires at 20 cm, 40 cm and 50 to 60 cm from the ground. Otherwise, two wires may be sufficient. Don't forget a gate for agricultural machinery to pass through. Important: the electric fence must be clearly visible to boars. This is why you should tension 25 Large game For hunters, damage cause by wild animals to any kind of crop is not only annoying, it’s also expensive. The crops taste good when they reach lactic ripeness.

VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 6-7 m 6 5 7 8 TOR mind. 5 m 4 Wild board defence fence The AKO wild animal defence net “WildNet” has many benefits, including: • Fast and easy to assemble and disassemble • 50 m long, blue net in one piece • Easy connection options • 3 current-carrying TriCOND wires • Defined wire distances and number of posts • A guide for blue signal tape on robust posts • Fence height thus 75 cm • Blue colour more easily visible for cloven-hoofed animals 26 Gate mi . 5 m

a blue AKO TopLine Plus fence tape at 40 cm height. A white-blue AKO TopLine Plus polywire is then tensioned above and below this. Our tip: the electric fence is even more visible if a blue signal tape is drawn through the uppermost guides of the AKO plastic posts. This also causes movement noises in the wind. Recommendation: In areas exposed to wind, we recommend that you cut the signal tape into several pieces and secure one piece to the top of each post. It's worth the effort! “Preventing damage caused by wild animals is a key task for hunters in many territories. The electric fence is more effective than any other countermeasure, since the main maize crop has such a long at-risk period. If you do not shy away from the time-consuming regular inspections and maintenance of the electric fence then, together with some hunting, you will almost be able to forget about damage caused by wild animals!” GAME MASTER MATTHIAS MEYER – professional hunter in a large private forestry and hunting administration, author 27 Large game 4 Aluminium strips or rags 5 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 6 Signal light Warning sign 7 8 Insulators 1 Premium WildHog Polywire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape 3 Blue signal tape 20 cm 40 cm 50-60 cm 60-70 cm 2 3 1 1

Vintners must keep ground vegetation short between the vines. 28 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Starter Kit Mobil Power AN 5500 (441016)  Signal Tape blue (27216)  Premium WildHog Wire (449312)  Octo Wood Post 225 cm (441826)  Plastic Post 108 cm blue (4418083)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable triple (441601/011)  Ring Insulator EDX (443279/1003E)  Klippiso Maxi Tape (441390/803)  Warning Sign (446513)

Roe Deer 29 Small game Roe deer love tall plants. Significant bite. Intensive hunting supports damage prevention. Roe deer prefer habitats with plenty of different species and structures, which include wine-growing areas. They do not cause any relevant damage to classic crops. Not so in vineyards. In April and May, they nibble the fresh shoots after the vines have blossomed. Bucks mark their territories, causing fraying damage to vines. In September, they love to eat the grapes. Yet other wild cloven-hoofed animals in the region appreciate grapes, too. Another problem is the rooting damage caused by wild boar in the often green lanes between the vines. Damage like this can be avoided with a properly set up and maintained AKO electric fence. The power is supplied by a powerful 12 V AKO electric fence device. If a 230 V power supply is ensured, then 230V AKO power packs or AKO Duo electric fence devices can also be used. For long fences with multiple wires and where heavy vegetation is to be expected, we recommend a pulse energy of more than 5 Joules. Optimum earthing is essential. Please note: Due to the specific terrain of vineyards (e.g. steep slopes, terraces), an electric fence must be set up so that the animals cannot jump over the fence from above. Roe deer like to slip under or between obstacles. Recommendations: to keep away roe deer and, where necessary, wild boar, three wires are tensioned at 20, 40 and 60 cm from the ground. A wooden post should be sunk at the corners and, depending on the fence length and for stability, halfway along each side of the vineyard, to which insulators are screwed. 90 cm long AKO plastic posts with integrated wire eyelets are installed in between (depending on the ter-

VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 6-7 m 6 5 7 8 TOR mind. 5 m 4 Roe deer defence fence 30 Rooting damage in lanes is often a nuisance. rain) at intervals of 6 to 8 metres depending on the height of the fence. The wires are tensioned on the wooden posts, whereas they only need to be inserted into the eyelets of the plastic posts. On stony ground, you will need to prepare holes using an iron rod or auger. The electric fence absolutely must be placed at the main wild animal interchanges and can then protect the vineyard in a U-shape. You can then decide for yourself whether to fence in the “harmless” side. Important: the electric fence must be clearly visible to boars and deer. This is why you should tension a blue AKO TopLine Plus fence tape at 40 cm height. A white-blue AKO TopLine Plus polywire is then tensioned above and below this. A blue signal tape can also be drawn through the uppermost guides of the plastic posts. Gate min. 5 m

5 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 6 Signal light 7 Warning sign 8 Insulators 1 Premium WildHog Polywire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape 3 Blue signal tape “Our vineyards around Lake Neusiedl in Burgenland, Austria, are cultivated with great diligence and experience. Wild animal damage caused by roe deer biting at buds and young shoots and the resultant damage to the vines are a major issue in viticulture. We are getting this problem very much under control through discussions and working together with the hunters and using short-term electric fences to keep wild animals at bay.” ÖK. ALOIS SCHUSTER, Halbturn (Austria), President of the Burgenland Wine-Growing Association from 1997 to 2009 31 Small game Where roe deer occur, a blue AKO TopLine Plus fence tape must also be tensioned at a height of 160 to 180 cm. Depending on the terrain type and wildlife occurrence, the AKO “WildNet” wild animal defence net is also recommended. Our tip: to effectively protect vineyards, winemakers should take accompanying measures. Keeping the ground vegetation in the lanes between vines very short means the roe deer are not offered any additional attractive browsing or cover. In some areas (countries), there are state subsidies for defence against wild animal damage in vineyards. 4 Aluminium strips or rags 20 cm 40 cm 50-60 cm 60-70 cm 3 1 1 2

Rabbits might look cute, but they can cause considerable damage to crops. 32 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Rabbit Net 50 m, 65 cm, double prong, green (292222)  Special Ground Rod – round profile for mobile use, 0.75 m (44619)  AKO Savanne 2000 incl. Metal Box (372752)  Solar Module 25 W for Battery Box (375251)  AKO Premium AGM Battery 88 AH (441203)  AKO Signal Light (441223/011)  Warning Sign “Hook-in”, printed on both sides, German (446513)  Fence Tester with LED Display (44669)

Wild Rabbits 33 Small game Rabbit warrens in vineyards are a problem for winegrowers. Peeling damage done by rabbits. The AKO net fence is effective protection. These little “cottontails” like to be sociable and therefore live in socially structured groups called colonies. Their habitat is diverse and is also located in open landscapes with hedges and bushes, at the edges of forests, in vineyards and in plant nurseries or cemeteries. You can also find rabbits in urban green areas. One key thing they need to build their underground warrens is dry, loose soil that is as lightweight as possible. Warrens are normally only 30/40 metres away from their feeding grounds. Rabbits have short flight distances and rely on short sprints to their warrens to escape predators. Rabbits eat anything “green”: grasses, grain (seeds), softwoods, vines, fruit trees. The damage to crop plants can be considerable. In agriculture, this is often visible at a large scale along the edges of fields. Biting and peeling damage to trees and shrubs can be considerable. Rooting also leads to damage, sometimes only as a late consequence. Especially in vineyards (a special crop in most German Federal States), holes in the ground can cause damage to work equipment. And in cattle pastures, for example, cattle can injure themselves when stepping into holes. Damage cause by wild rabbits is subject to compensation in Germany in accordance with the Federal Hunting Act. An AKO net fence is recommended as an effective defensive measure. It should be 65 cm high. The horizontal current conduction is achieved with 3 x 0.20 mm stainless steel conductors per wire. The extra small mesh size of 5.9 cm should ensure the highest level of safety. The fence elements are quick and easy to connect with Litzclip®.

Wild rabbit defence fence 34 The AKO battery unit Mobil Power Savanne 2000 is ideal for supplying power, and it also comes with a galvanised metal box. The 12 volt device has a high output power and is suitable for normal fencing systems, even those with heavier vegetation. Solar operation is possible. An additional protection against undermining can be achieved if the net is laid flat on the ground around 20 cm to the outside. The fold should be weighted down with soil or stones. In very problematic cases, the net fence should be dug down around 20 to 30 cm. This increases the complexity, as then the electrical voltage must be ensured via an additional wired defence fence. AKO Premium SX wire affixed on the lower three eyelets of 156 cm high solid plastic posts with steel tips is very suitable. In general – as for any other electric fence – the yellow AKO “Caution – electric fence” warning signs must be attached, preferably in numerous places. An electric fence that is carefully constructed, maintained and regularly checked for tending safety is a supplementary measure for the reduction of damage even in the case of wild rabbits. Hunting is unavoidable for keeping the numbers under control. VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 5 4 3 5,9 cm 5,9 cm

“After talking to those concerned, we have found that an electric fence helps to prevent damage caused by wild rabbits. But only a combination of intensive hunting in autumn and winter and setting up an electric fence is truly effective. Regular checking for undermining or jumping between two posts is important. An earthing wire between the net and the uppermost tape is a good supporting measure. This means that any rabbits jumping over it receive earthing contact.” AXEL SEIDEMANN – hunts professionally, including rabbits in parks, gardens and industrial complexes, author on small game 35 Small game Please note: uneven terrain must be taken into account. If the distance from the ground is too large, the rabbits will slip under the fence. 4 Blue signal tape 5 Signal light 1 Rabbit net 5.9 cm mesh size 2 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 3 Warning sign 2 1

Adaptable wolves are returning and colonising new habitats. 36 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Starter Kit Mobil Power AN 5500 (441010)  TopLine Plus blue 10 mm (449569)  Premium WildHog Wire (449312)  Octo Wood Post 200 cm (441823)  Plastic Post 156 cm (443493)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable triple (441601/011)  Ring Insulator EDX (443279/1003E)  Klippiso Maxi Tape (441390/803)  Warning Sign (446513)

Wolves 37 Predators Using electric fences means you can protect your livestock. The spread of the wolf in the cultivated landscape holds a potential for conflict. As opportunist feeders, they go for the animals that they can capture most easily. These are, above all, domestic animals such as sheep and goats. This makes protecting the herd an important issue. This includes the tried and tested defence against wolves using electric fences. The electric fence must be optimally earthed – whether that’s a fence equipped with five wires or the AKO WolfNet. A powerful 12 V AKO fence device with a fence voltage of around 4000 to 5000 volts and an impulse energy of around 5 Joules is used to provide power. The ground clearance of the lowest blue AKO TopLine Plus fence tape should be 10 to a maximum of 20 cm. When using the AKO WolfNet, this must reach to the ground (take uneven terrain into account!). Only then can it protect against undermining. Wolves will first try to push themselves under a fence instead of jumping over it. The additional AKO wires (or tapes) are affixed at 30 and 50 cm height on the classic electric fence. The spacing can then be a little larger – e.g. wires at 80 and 110 cm in height. Our tip: we recommend tensioning a blue signal tape or a blue AKO TopLine Plus fence tape at the upper fence end at 130 or 140 cm height as a visual barrier. In areas exposed to wind, there is the option to cut the signal tape into several pieces and secure one piece to the top of each post. Alternatively, affixing rags (rag fence/wolf hunt) can help. This should have an additional, if only temporary, defence effect, especially on younger wolves. A wooden post should be sunk at each corner and, depending on the fence length, halfway along each side of the pen, to which insulators are screwed. AKO plastic posts, preferably with integrated wire eyelets, are installed in between (depending on the terrain) at intervals of 7 to 8 metres depending on the height of the fence. Important: a mobile pen should not be too small, so that wolves cannot get too close to the animals and panic them. Double fencing is required in some cases. This creates a "safety ring".

VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 4-5 m 10 cm 30 cm 50 cm 80 cm 110 cm 130 cm 2 2 1 1 1 6 5 7 8 4 3 Wolf defence fence The AKO WolfNet ...includes the following benefits: • Quick assembly and disassembly • 50 m long blue net in one piece • Two net heights: 125 | 138 cm with signal band • 6 current-carrying TriCOND wires • Non-electrifiable floor wire as protection against undermining • Defined wire distances and number of posts 38 The following must be observed: the wires are tensioned tightly on the wooden posts, whereas they only need to be inserted into the eyelets of the plastic posts. Don't let them sag. Important: the AKO electric fence or AKO WolfNet must be positioned at a sufficient distance from embankments and slopes (not at their upper end!) as well as from forest roads (not at the Blue signal tape for better visibility.

4 5 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 1 Premium WildHog Polywire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape 3 Blue signal tape “The return of wolves to Germany poses a challenge, especially when it comes to promoting a largely conflict-free coexistence between domestic animals and wolves. Good protection is a prerequisite to keep the number of attacks on domestic animals as low as possible in the long term. Commercially available live fences with a recommended height of at least 110 centimetres are very effective protection against wolf attacks. This is because they are a barrier that causes pain to the wolf when one touches it.” VANESSA LUDWIG – Project manager of the Wolfsregion Lausitz contact offices (Saxony) 39 Predators lower end), rootstocks and similar. Wolves could otherwise use the natural circumstances as aids to enter. Attention must also be paid to excluding water ditches and ponds, as wolves could jump over them or run through them. Outside of the grazing season, you must disassemble the fences that are no longer electrified. Wolves could otherwise learn how to overcome them. There is also the risk that other wild animals could get caught in the fence or that material fatigue could occur due to frost. Note: in hunting grounds, winter can see attacks on cloven-hoofed animals at feeding stations and winter fences. The electric fences described above can also be used here to keep wolves away. Particular attention must be paid to the respective terrain and the different snow heights. Aluminium strips or rags 6 Signal light 7 Warning sign 8 Insulators WolfNet

Foxes and badgers have a very wide range of foods. 40 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Duo Power X 1000 (372871)  Poultry Net, electrifiable (292220)  TopLine Plus Wire 400 m (4491559)  Plastic Post Eco 70 cm (441810)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Warning Sign (446513)

Foxes | Badgers 41 Foxes love to hunt poultry. Predators Badgers can cause significant damage to wheat and maize fields. Foxes also require a lot of food while rearing their young from around April/May. Domestic poultry and wild birds kept in aviaries are desirable and easy prey during this time. Omnivorous badgers have a wide range of food including eggs, young birds and grain in summer, and maize once ripe on the cob. They often bring their clans to fall on crops. Electric fences can be used to ward off predators. This includes a powerful 12 V AKO fence device with a fence voltage of around 4000 to 5000 volts and an impulse energy of 1 to 5 Joules. Optimum earthing must be ensured. First, aviaries should be surrounded by a net at least two metres high (mesh size max. 5 cm). On the upper end, the net must project outwards like the letter Y (protection against climbing) and be laid around 15 cm flat on the ground towards the outside (undermining protection). An AKO electric fence is then set up around the entire aviary, about 15 to 20 cm in front of the aviary net. This means no predators can linger between the aviary and electric fence. AKO plastic posts with a total height of 70 cm (18 cm ground nails) are used and set up in intervals of 7 to 8 m. A wooden post is driven in at the corners corresponding to the aviary layout and insulators screwed in. Two white-blue AKO TopLine Plus polywires are attached at 10 and 20 cm above ground. An AKO electric fence can also be installed to prevent damage to crops done by hungry badgers. AKO plastic posts with a total height of 70 cm are used and set up in intervals of 7 to 8 m. A wooden post is driven in at the corners of the field to be able to tension

VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 5 7 4 4 4 6 3 Fox | Badger defence fence 42 the wires and insulators screwed in. Two whiteblue AKO TopLine Plus polywires are attached at 10 and 20 cm above ground. There is still a risk of undermining. Please note: you must consider any uneven terrain and the distance of the electric fence to the aviary. You must prevent foxes or badgers getting under the fence or foxes jumping over it. Other fence variants: if you are using non-electrifiable AKO poultry nets, the procedure is generally the same. Wildlife protection fences are frequently used for free-range chicken rearing for egg production. However, foxes can climb up the mesh or force themselves through. This is why we recommend the same procedure as for aviaries described above. Poultry is also kept behind fences with metal mesh. If the mesh is larger than 5 cm in size, foxes can climb over fences like these. In order to prevent this, an AKO TopLine Plus polywire is attached according to the respective conditions at 10 and 20 cm above the fence and electrified. Don't forget the warning signs. We recommend using a 230 V AKO power supply in the vicinity of buildings.

4 White-blue TopLine Plus fence wire 5 Signal light 6 Net or fence wire with 2.5 cm mesh 7 Insulators Mesh wire overlapping by 15 cm on the ground 1 Aviary / enclosure: Net 5 cm mesh 2 Fence connection cable with alligator clips 3 Warning sign “In more than 40 years of working as a gamekeeper and game farmer, keeping away foxes and badgers has been a real challenge. It is almost impossible to completely protect pheasants or poultry in a rural area using only aviaries or mesh fences. An supplementary, carefully built electric fence is a key additional defence.” LEO NAYLOR – English professional hunter, outfitter, game dealer in Somerset (England) 43 Predators 1 2 20 cm 10 cm

These protected otters only live in water but still count as land predators. 44 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Duo Power X 2500 (372872)  TopLine Plus blue 10 mm (449569)  TopLine Plus Wire 400 m (4491559)  Octo Wood Post 180 cm (441822)  Plastic Post Eco 70 cm (441810)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable triple (441601/011)  Ring Insulator EDX (443279/1003E)  Klippiso Maxi Tape (441390/803)  Warning Sign (446513)

European Otters 45 Fish are coveted and easy prey. Predators Fish farms in otter habitats are popular sources of food. Pond protection with electric fence. The number of otters in Germany has increased significantly. Subsequently, major economic problems are arising in traditional pond farming. Once the rivers are bare of fish in the winter, these predators increasingly turn to the pond facilities of fish farms for prey. In summer, the female otters teach their young to fish, killing more fish than they eat. Otter consultants and the fishery associations can provide information on any support available for defence measures. One of these is the use of electric fences. The wires are electrified either using a powerful 12 V AKO fence device or a 230 V AKO power pack where there is a nearby power supply. The advantages of power packs (we recommend installing a ground fault circuit breaker): unrestricted tending periods, more secure in the case of heavy vegetation and long fences and also saves more energy than battery units. AKO Duo electric fence devices are an interesting alternative – 230 V mains supply and 12 V battery as two energy sources in one device. In general, this requires a powerful 12 V AKO fence device with a fence voltage of around 4000 to 5000 volts and an impulse energy of 1 to 5 Joules. Optimum earthing must be ensured. AKO plastic posts with a total height of 70 cm (18 cm ground nails) are set up in intervals of 5 to 6 m around the fish ponds. A wooden post is driven in at the corners of the pond for stability and insulators screwed in. Two white-blue AKO TopLine Plus polywires are attached at 10 and 30 cm from the ground. In between them, a blue AKO TopLine Plus fence tape is tensioned at 20 cm and, above that, at 40 cm.

20 cm 30 cm 40 cm 10 cm 5 m 1 1 2 2 6 5 4 3 VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN Otter defence fence 46 Please note: uneven terrain must be taken into account. The key to success: in regions with deep snow and risk of flooding, AKO posts of at least 160 to 180 cm length must be used, on which the wire heights are also freely adjustable. AKO T-post metal posts or AKO fibreglass posts are suitable, for example. Although it is labour-intensive, the ground clearance of the wires must increase along with the height of the snow. Keeping the vegetation short around the electric fence is also important in the growing season. Tip: where permanent fencing systems around fish ponds are permitted, there is a risk that otters will climb over the fence. This can be prevented by attaching insulators to the outer side of the fence at 20 and 40 cm above the ground and tensioning and electrifying an AKO TopLine Plus polywire on each one. A current-carrying wire tensioned 10 to 15 cm above the fence is also effective. Problems: AKO Agrartechnik feels obliged to point out that 1. Fish farms or their pond facilities are often easily accessible. Children in particular could grab the electric fence. Therefore, you must attach clearly visible warning signs at these points.

4 3 VORSICHT ELEKTROZAUN 6 5 2 2 1 1 5 m 60 cm 70 cm 80 cm 50 cm 4 Warning sign 5 Signal light 6 Insulators 1 White-blue TopLine Plus fence wire 2 Blue TopLine Plus fence tape 3 Fence connection cable with alligator clips “Otters have become very widespread in Lower Bavaria since around 2003. They have cause major damage to fish farms and will continue to do so. This is why many fish farmers have already abandoned their facilities. As a mobile device, electric fences are a suitable defensive measure against otters if they are correctly installed and maintained.” MARTIN MASCHKE – Fishery master, Fischerzeugerring Niederbayern 47 Predators 2. Wandering amphibians such as toads and frogs are drawn to the pools during the spawning season. Often, two or even three males sit on a female frog. If the topmost one touches the wire, all the frogs can be killed by electric shock.

The numbers of beavers have increased significantly in recent decades. 48 OUR PRODUCT TIPS  Savanne 2000 (372752)  TopLine Plus blue 10 mm (449569)  TopLine Plus Wire 400 m (4491559)  Plastic Post Eco 70 cm (441810)  Signal Light (441223/011)  Fence Connector Cable (441608/011)  Warning Sign (446513)

Beavers 49 Beaver slides are a tell-tale sign of these rodents. Rodents Beavers prefer to damage maize fields close to water. An electric fence to deter beavers? These rodents are particularly and strictly protected in line with the Federal Nature Conservation law. Beavers are also listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive, meaning that you must comply with certain protective provisions. Nature conservation authorities, beaver managers and beaver consultants can provide information on the legal requirements and possible support measures for the use of an electric fence as a preventive measure against damage. In many places, the damage caused by beavers is an issue: chewing damage to trees, the construction of beaver dams in sensitive flood areas, the construction of tunnels under fields and dams or even railway lines. In addition, these rodents cause chewing and moisture damage to agricultural crops (food crops, fruit, vegetables, special crops) or even damage to fish farm ponds. Electric fences have been successfully used to ward off beavers for many years now, keeping them away from arable land and gardens and to prevent new or rebuilt beaver dams. We know from practical experience that a 12 V AKO battery unit with a fence voltage of around 3000 to 4000 volts and a pulse energy of 1 Joule to around 4 Joules is sufficient for supplying the power to a two-wire fence. Optimum earthing must be ensured. AKO plastic posts with a total height of 70 cm (with ground nails) at intervals of around 5 m are used to construct the fence. A wooden post is driven in at the corners to be able to tension the wires and insulators screwed in. To prevent the construction of a new dam,

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